Freestyle - discipline of swimming, in which the swimmer is allowed to swim by any means, arbitrarily changing them along the course. Currently, all swimmers use the crawl.
Сrawl was first demonstrated by the Australian Cavill, Richmond (born Cavill, Richmond 1884-1938); Hungarian Zoltán Halmai and American Charles Meldrum Daniels won the first major victories with the use of a crawl. They won 2 games at the 1904 Games. Thanks to improvements made by American swimmers, the crawl finally replaced other styles by the end of the 1920s.
In freestyle swimming, the only restriction on the way of swimming is that an athlete can be completely submerged in water only “during the turn and at a distance of no more than 15 m after the start and each turn”.
Crawl on the back
Backstroke was first included as a stand-alone view at the 1900 Olympics. In the early years, swimmers used an inverted breaststroke. The first major success in swimming crawl on the back was achieved by the American Harry Hebner, who won the 1912 Olympics; after that, in swimming on the back, the crawl quickly displaced the breaststroke.
Starting in swimming on the back is made of water: the athlete, while facing the nightstand, clings to the starting rails with both hands, with his feet resting on the side of the pool. Excluding the moment of the turn, the athlete must swim on his back; “A normal position on the back may include rotational movement of the body in a horizontal plane up to 90 ° inclusive; the position of the head is not regulated. " An athlete can be completely immersed in water only “during the turn, at the finish and at a distance of no more than 15 m after the start and every turn”.
Breaststroke swimming was a stand-alone program at the 1904 Olympics. In the mid-1930s, in the United States and (a little later) in the USSR, a new, more speedy type of breaststroke appeared - the butterfly, which supplanted the classic breaststroke. Since 1953, the FINA has allocated the butterfly into an independent discipline (in the USSR, this division occurred in 1949).
According to the rules of the competition when swimming breaststroke:
From the beginning of the first hand stroke, after the start and after each turn, the swimmer must lie on his chest. Turning on the back is prohibited at any time. Throughout the course, the full cycle should be performed in the following sequence: one stroke with one hand and one push with the legs.
All hand movements should be simultaneous and be performed in the same horizontal plane without alternating movements.
Hands should be carried forward from the chest, above or below the surface of the water. The elbows should be under water, with the exception of the last stroke before the turn, during the turn and the final stroke at the finish. Hands should go back on the surface of the water or under water. Hands should not go beyond the line of the hips, excluding the first stroke after the start and every turn.
During each complete cycle, any part of the swimmer’s head must break the water surface. After the start and every turn, the swimmer can do one full stroke with his hands up to his hips. The head must break the surface of the water before the arms begin to move inward from the narrowest part of the second stroke. One dolphin-like movement with feet down during or after performing a full stroke with hands before pushing with a breaststroke is allowed while the body is completely submerged (Currently, dolphin-like kick is allowed only during a full stroke with hands, also called “broach”). After that, all leg movements should be simultaneous and be performed in one horizontal plane without alternating movements.
Explanation: a dolphin’s kick is not part of a cycle of movements and is allowed only after starting and turning while hands are running towards the legs or after doing a full stroke with hands before pushing the breaststroke while the body is completely submerged. It is not allowed to perform a dolphin-like movement with the legs until the beginning of the stroke with the hands after starting and turning.
During the active part of the push, the feet must be turned to the sides. Scissors, vibrating or dolphin-like blows to the bottom are not allowed, except for the moment under clause 5.4.4.
The breaking of the surface of the water by the feet is permitted, unless there is a dolphin-like blow downwards after this.
At each turn and at the finish of the distance, the touch must be made with both hands simultaneously above, below or along the surface of the water. The head may be submerged in the water after the last stroke by the hands before touching, provided that it breaks the surface of the water at any point during the last full or partial cycle preceding the touch.
According to the rules of the competition when swimming the butterfly:
From the beginning of the first hand stroke, after the start and after each turn, the body must be on the chest. Underwater kicks to the sides are allowed. Turning back is not allowed at any time.
Both hands should rush forward together above the water and return back simultaneously during the entire swim.
All leg movements up and down should be performed simultaneously. Legs or feet may not be on the same level, but their position relative to each other should not change. Breaststroke movements are not allowed.
At each turn and at the finish line, the touch must be simultaneously with both hands on the surface, above or below the surface of the water.
When starting and cornering, the swimmer is allowed to make one or more movements with his feet under the water and one stroke with his hands, which must bring him to the surface. The swimmer is allowed a full dive at a distance of not more than 15 m after the start and each turn. At this point the athlete's head should break the surface of the water. The swimmer must remain on the surface until the next turn or until the finish.
Comprehensive swimming is a discipline in which the swimmer overcomes the equal parts of the distance with the butterfly (added in 1953), on the back, breaststroke and freestyle. The combined relay race is a relay race in which participants overcome their stages in different styles: backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly (added in 1953), freestyle. At the same time "freestyle" means any style, except for swimming on the back, breaststroke and butterfly.
The program of official international competitions includes integrated swimming since 1961, the combined relay from 1957. The program of the championships of Russia and the USSR combined relay race was included earlier: in 1914-1934 - 4 × 100 m (also included on the side), in 1936 and 1947-1951 - 3 × 100 m, since 1953 - 4 × 100 m
Swimming in open water
Individual heats, and then competitions for long distances on open water bodies began to be held at the end of the XIX century. Probably the most famous of them are the heats across the English Channel; first English Channel was overcome in 1875 by Englishman Matthew Webb.
Since 1991, open water swimming has been included in the program of the World Aquatics Championships, and since 2000, in even years, separate world open water swimming championships have also been held. Distances: 5 km (since 1998), 10 km (from 2000), 25 km (from 1991). In 2008, a distance of 10 km became Olympic.